Bailiwick of Jersey
The Bailiwick of Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri) is a British Crown dependency off the coast of Normandy, France. As well as the island of Jersey itself, it also includes the uninhabited islands of Minquiers and Ecréhous.
Along with the Bailiwick of Guernsey it forms the grouping known as the Channel Islands. The defence of all these islands is the responsibility of the United Kingdom.
However, Jersey is not part of the United Kingdom, nor the European Union, the Bailiwick is a separate possession of the Crown, comparable to Guernsey and to the Isle of Man.
Jersey is an island with its own laws and currency – an island of traditional agriculture and modern finance.
Saint Helier (Jèrriais: St Hélyi) is one of the twelve parishes, and the largest town in Jersey, it has a population of about 28,000, and is the capital of the Island (although Government House is situated in St. Saviour).
Flag of Jersey
The flag of Jersey was adopted by the States of Jersey on June 12, 1979, proclaimed by the Queen on December 10, 1980 and first officially hoisted on April 1, 1981.
It is white with a diagonal red cross extending to the corners of the flag and in the upper quadrant, surmounted by a yellow Plantagenet crown, the badge of Jersey (a red shield holding the three leopards of Normandy in yellow). The new flag used officially since 1981 has the arms of Jersey surmounted by a Plantagenet crown. Prior to this, the flag was a plain red saltire on a white field. Historical research has failed to ascertain the origin of this flag. Among the legends are a story that a mistranslation from Dutch of the word Erse (“Irish”) in a Dutch chart endowed Ierse (Jersey) with a cross of St. Patrick by mistake.
Historical research has failed to ascertain the origin of this flag. Among the legends are a story that a mistranslation from Dutch of the word Erse (“Irish”) in a Dutch chart endowed Ierse (Jersey) with a cross of St. Patrick by mistake. However, French Admiralty charts show that Jersey was using the red saltire before the adoption of that symbol for the Order of St. Patrick and its incorporation into the modern Union Flag.
Some claim that the red saltire has a Norman origin. The red saltire of the Order of St. Patrick was derived at the end of the 18th century from the heraldry of the Hiberno-Norman Fitzgerald family. If it is an old Norman symbol, then Jersey’s saltire may derive from the same origin. Little evidence can be adduced to support this theory.
A traditional belief is as follows: Jersey, along with the other Channel Islands, was granted neutrality by Papal Bull during periods of warfare between England and France. Since they were able to trade freely with both sides, Jersey ships required a way of differentiating themselves from English ships. They therefore rotated the St. George’s Cross of the English Crown to form a saltire.
The coat of arms of Jersey is a red shield with three gold lions passant guardant (les trois léopards in French). It was granted to the island as a seal by Edward I in 1279.
History of Jersey
Formerly under the control of Brittany and named Angia, also spelled Agna, Jersey became subject to Viking influence and settlement and was eventually annexed to the Duchy of Normandy by William Longsword, Duke of Normandy in 933.
His descendant, William the Conqueror, conquered England in 1066, which led to the Duchy of Normandy and the kingdom of England being governed under one monarch.
King John lost all his territories in mainland Normandy in 1204 to the King of France, but retained possession of Jersey, along with Guernsey and the other Channel Islands which have been internally self-governing since. Islanders became involved with the Newfoundland fisheries in the 17th century.
In recognition for all the help given to him during his exile in Jersey in the 1640s, Charles II gave George Carteret, Bailiff and governor, a large grant of land in the American colonies, which he promptly named New Jersey, now part of the United States of America.
Trade, aided by neutrality between England and France, laid the foundations of prosperity. The Jersey way of life involved agriculture, fishing, shipbuilding, and production of woollen goods until 19th century improvements in transport links brought tourism to the Island. Jersey was occupied by Nazi Germany from 1 July 1940, and was held until 9 May 1945.
Jersey’s legislature is the States of Jersey. It includes 53 elected members – 12 senators (elected for 6-year terms), 12 constables (heads of parishes elected for 3-year terms), 29 deputies (elected for 3-year terms); the Bailiff and the Deputy Bailiff (appointed to preside over the assembly and having a casting vote in favour of the status quo when presiding); and 3 non-voting members – the Dean of Jersey, the Attorney General, and the Solicitor General all appointed by the Crown.
Government departments are run by a cabinet of ministers under a Chief Minister. The civil head of the Island is the Bailiff.
All current States Members have been elected as independents. Formally constituted political parties are unfashionable, although groups of “like-minded members” act in concert.
The Centre Party (Jersey) claims to be the largest political party in Jersey.
The Centre Party has committed to only proposing candidates for Senatorial elections, though members are free to, and have, stood for Deputy as independents.
They remain independent in the Chamber.
The only political party currently having representation in the States is the Jersey Democratic Alliance, although their members similarly stood for election as independents.
The legal system is based on Norman customary law (including the Clameur de Haro), statute and English law; justice is administered by the Royal Court.
Elizabeth II’s traditional title as head of state is that of Duke of Normandy, but she does not hold that title formally.
She reigns by her position as Queen over a crown dependency. Her representative on the island is the Lieutenant Governor, The Lieutenant General has little but a token involvement in island politics.
Administratively, Jersey is divided into 12 parishes, all having access to the sea and named after the dedications of their ancient parish churches:
Saint Helier, Saint Saviour, Saint Clement, Grouville (Saint Martin de Grouville), Saint Martin, Trinity, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Ouen, Saint Peter, Saint Brelade and Saint Lawrence.
The parishes of Jersey are further divided into vingtaines (or, in St. Ouen, cueillettes), divisions which are historic and nowadays mostly used for purposes of local administration and electoral constituency.
The Constable (or Connétable) is the head of each parish, elected at a public election for a three year term to run the parish and to represent the municipality in the States. The Procureur du Bien Public (two in each parish) is the legal and financial representative of the parish, elected at a public election (since 2003 in accordance with the Public Elections (Amendment) (Jersey) Law 2003; prior to that an Assembly of Electors of each parish elected the Procureurs in accordance with the Loi (1804) au sujet des assemblées paroissiales).
A Procureur du Bien Public is elected for a mandate of three years as a public trustee for the funds and property of the parish and to be empowered to pass contract on behalf of the parish if so authorised by a Parish Assembly.
Centeniers are elected at a public election within each parish for a term of three years to undertake policing within the parish. The Centenier is the only officer authorised to charge and bail offenders.
Formerly, the senior Centenier of each parish (known as the Chef de Police) deputised for the Constable in the States of Jersey when the Constable was unable to attend a sitting of the States – this function has been abolished.
Although diplomatic representation is reserved to the Crown, Jersey has been developing its own international identity over recent years. It negotiates directly with foreign governments on matters within the competence of the States of Jersey.
Jersey maintains the Bureau de Jersey in Caen, France, a permanent non-diplomatic representation, with a branch office in Rennes.
A similar office, the Maison de Normandie in St. Helier, represents the Conseil général of Manche and the Regional Council of Lower Normandy. It also houses the Consulate of France. In July 2009, a Channel Islands Tunnel was proposed to connect Jersey with Lower Normandy.
Jersey is a member of the British-Irish Council, the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association and the Assemblée parlementaire de la Francophonie. Jersey wants to become a full member of the Commonwealth in its own right.
In 2007, the Chief Minister and the UK Lord Chancellor signed an agreement that established a framework for the development of the international identity of Jersey.
In January 2011, the Chief Minister designated one of his assistant ministers as having responsibility for external relations; he is now often described as the island’s ‘foreign minister’.
Tax information exchange agreements (TIEAs) have been signed directly by the island with several countries.
Relationship with the European Union
Jersey is neither a Member State nor an Associate Member of the European Union. It does, however, have a relationship with the EU governed by article 335(5)(c) TFEU giving effect to Protocol 3 to the UK’s Treaty of Accession in 1972. However, Jersey does not appear on the list of European States and Territories outside the Union and the Communities prepared by the European Council and the Commission. This is a result of the manner of implementation of the Treaty arrangements under the Act of Accession in 1972. It is easier to understand the present relationship on the basis that Jersey would have been fully within the European Communities like Gibraltar, being a European territory for whose external relations the United Kingdom was responsible, but that that is limited to the Protocol 3 arrangements under article 355 TFEU to reflect the then existing relationship with the United Kingdom.
Under Protocol 3, Jersey is part of the European Union Customs Union of the European Community. The common customs tariff, levies and other agricultural import measures apply to trade between the island and non-Member States. There is free movement of goods and trade between the island and Member States. EU rules on freedom of movement for workers do not apply in Jersey.
However, Article 4 of the Protocol requires the Islands authorities to give the same treatment to all natural and legal persons of the Communities. In Pereira, the ECJ held that the scope of this article included any matter governed by the Treaties in a territory where the Treaties are fully applicable. The Island is therefore within the scope of the Treaties to a limited extent, as a European Territory. To infer, as the French Ambassador and finance minister have attempted to argue, namely that the Island is outside the European Union and Communities without qualification is therefore simplistic, in law false. The French blacklisting of the Island had to be hastily revoked when this was pointed out.
As a result, Jersey is not part of the single market in financial services. It is not required to implement EU Directives on such matters as movement of capital, company law or money laundering. However, the island’s close proximity (135 km south) and its close association with the financial sector of the U.K. has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years, with several mainline publications (e.g., The Wall Street Journal) labelling the island a tax haven.
British citizens who have only a connection to Jersey, and not with the United Kingdom or another member state of the European Union, are not considered by the Jersey States to be European Union citizens. They have ‘Islander status’ and their Jersey-issued British passports are endorsed with the words the holder is not entitled to benefit from EU provisions relating to employment or establishment.
However, it is not yet clear whether the citizenship rights in articles 18 and 21 TFEU are partly available to them as British Citizens, given the limited restriction of their rights under article 2 of the Protocol. That restriction on the exercise of certain freedoms does not apply to all Community or Union rights.
The freedom of movement under the prior EC régime was and remains a separate set of rights from the Citizen rights under article 20 and 21 TFEU which include the right to move and reside. Those rights are primary citizenship rights, not a mere freedom.
It might not need a Treaty change to perfect this, merely a preliminary ruling from the CJEU, and supplementary implementation measures from the Council, given the effective right of entrance and residence granted to EU nationals via Article 4 of the Protocol. Jersey residents presently do not have a right to vote in elections for the European Parliament.
Jersey and Guernsey jointly opened an office in Brussels in 2010 to promote their common interests with European Union institutions.
The question of an independent Jersey has been discussed from time to time in the Assembly of the States of Jersey.
In 2005–2008, a working group of the States of Jersey examined the options for independence, concluding that Jersey ‘is equipped to face the challenges of independence’ but making no recommendations. Proposals for Jersey independence continue to be discussed outside the States.
In October 2012, the Council of Ministers issued a “Common policy for external relations” that noted “that it is not Government policy to seek independence from the United Kingdom, but rather to ensure that Jersey is prepared if it were in the best interests of Islanders to do so”. On the basis of the established principles the Council of Ministers decided to “ensure that Jersey is prepared for external change that may affect the Island’s formal relationship with the United Kingdom and/or European Union”.
Jersey is the biggest island of the five included in the Channel Islands, its capital being Saint Helier, a point of maximum attraction to tourists, a very complex town, full of history and modernity at the same time. Saint Helier is one of the twelve parishes in Jersey, it unfolds in the South of the island, along Saint Aubin’s Bay, also known as L’Islet and it represents the transportation, the governmental, the cultural and commercial heart of Jersey.
This town has almost twenty eight thousand inhabitants, its urban region occupying the biggest part of Jersey, the rest part being completed by St. Saviour, with St. Lawrence or St. Clement. 9% of the total surface of Jersey is covered by the parish, its crest having as symbol two crossed golden axes on blue, representing the sea and the martyrdom of the saint it was named after.
Saint Helier is named after Helier, the ascetic missionary, also known as Helerius, who died there back in 555. Despite this established date, this martyr is celebrated on July 16th, when people take a pilgrimage to the Hermitage and also, his memory is kept in the Abbey of Saint Helier, a construction built in the middle of the XIIth century by Robert FitzHamon of Gloucester.
At its origins, this town was a fishing village surrounding the parish, the place where courts gathered and markets were held beginning with the XIII-th century. After Elisabeth’s Castle was built in 1551-1590, Saint Helier turned into the seat of government, the castle being the place where Lord Clarendon, known for the History of the Rebellion, and Charles II, as fugitive, sought their refuge. The harbour was initially built in 1700, the current one having its origins back in 1841. Victoria College, dating form 1852.
The famous Royal Square in the capital of Jersey was the place where the Battle of Jersey took place, in 1781, a battle aiming for the French to conquer the island.
Saint Helier is administrated in vigtaines, there being six such divisions: La Vingtaine de la Ville, with Le Canton de Bas and Le Canton de Haut, La Vingtaine du Rouge Bouillon, de Bas et du Haut du Mont au Prêtre, La Vingtaine du Mont à l’Abbé and La Vingtaine du Mont Cochon.
As for political aspects, Saint Helier is made up of four districts, named St. Helier 1, 2, 3 and 4, the first two with three deputies and the last two making up a constituency with four deputies. Therefore, based on this principle, there are eleven representatives of Jersey in the States of Jersey, together with the Constable.
There are many sites in the town twinned with Avranches in France, Bad Wurzach in Germany and Gunchal in Madeira which the Planning and Environment department of Jersey has entitled Sites of Special Interest, one of the most pertinent being the Central Market in Beresford Street, the indoor market which started its activity in 1882. This Victorian style site is only one of these sites for which Saint Helier is also popular all around the world.
The island of Jersey has an area of 119 square kilometres, with 70 kilometres of coastline. Jersey claims a territorial sea of 3 nmi (5.6 km; 3.5 mi) and an exclusive fishing zone of 12 nmi (22.2 km; 13.8 mi).
Jersey is the largest and southernmost of the Channel Islands. It is located north of Brittany and west of the Cotentin Peninsula in Normandy. About 30% of the population of the island is concentrated in Saint Helier, which is a parish and the capital town of the island.
Besides the main island, the bailiwick includes other islets and reefs with no permanent population: Les Écréhous, Les Minquiers, Les Pierres de Lecq, Les Dirouilles.
The highest point in the island is Les Platons on the north coast, at 136 metres (446 ft). Parts of the parish of St Clement in the south were previously below sea-level but the construction of a seawall and infilling of low land has probably left only a few pockets of land below mean sea level. The terrain is generally low-lying on the south coast, with some rocky headlands, rising gradually to rugged cliffs along the north coast. On the west coast there are sand dunes. Small valleys run north to south across the island. Very large tidal variation exposes large expanses of sand and rock to the southeast at low tide.
The climate in the island is temperate, with mild winters and cool summers. Although the minimum daily temperature can fall below freezing in the winter, the monthly average temperature does not. The Atlantic Ocean has a moderating effect on temperature in Jersey, as water has a much greater specific heat capacity than air and tends to heat and cool slowly throughout the year. This has a warming influence on coastal areas in winter and a cooling influence in summer.
The highest temperature recorded was 36.0 °C (96.8 °F) on 9 August 2003, and the lowest temperature recorded was −10.3 °C (13.5 °F) on 5 January 1894. By comparison, higher temperatures are found in mainland United Kingdom, which achieved 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) in Faversham, Kent on 10 August 2003. The impact of the Atlantic Ocean and costal winds ensure that Jersey is cooler than the UK during the summer months.
Snow falls rarely in Jersey, some years will pass with no snow fall at all.
Jersey’s economy is based on financial services (40% of GVA in 2012), tourism & hospitality (hotels, restaurants, bars, transport & communications totalling 8.4% of GVA in 2012), retail and wholesale (7% of GVA in 2012), construction (6.2% of GVA in 2012) and agriculture (1.3% of GVA in 2012).
Thanks to specialisation in a few high-return sectors, at purchasing power parity Jersey has high economic output per capita, substantially ahead of all of the world’s large developed economies. Gross national income in 2009 was £3.7 billion (approximately £40,000 per head of population).
However, this is not indicative of each individual resident’s purchasing power, and the actual standard of living in Jersey is comparable to that in the United Kingdom outside central London.
The island is recognised as one of the leading offshore financial centres. The growth of this sector however has not been without its controversies as Jersey has been characterised by critics and detractors as a place in which the “leadership has essentially been captured by global finance, and whose members will threaten and intimidate anyone who dissents.”
In June 2005 the States introduced the Competition (Jersey) Law 2005 to regulate competition and stimulate economic growth. This competition law was based on that of other jurisdictions.
Tourism supports not only hotels, but also retail and services: in 2009 there were 685,200 visitors spending £230 million. Duty-free goods are available for purchase on travel to and from the island.
In 2009 57% of the Island’s area was agricultural land (an increase on 2008). Major agricultural products are potatoes and dairy produce; agriculture’s share of GVA increased 5% in 2009, a fifth successive year of growth.
Jersey cattle are a small breed of cow widely known for its rich milk and cream; although the quality of its meat is also appreciated on a small scale. The herd total in 2009 was 5,090 animals. Fisheries and aquaculture make use of Jersey’s marine resources to a total value of over £6 million in 2009.
Farmers and growers often sell surplus food and flowers in boxes on the roadside, relying on the honesty of customers to drop the correct change into the money box and take what they want.
In the 21st century, diversification of agriculture and amendments in planning strategy have led to farm shops replacing many of the roadside stalls.
53,460 people were employed in Jersey as of December 2010: 24% in financial and legal services; 16% in wholesale and retail trades; 16% in the public sector; 10% in education, health and other private sector services; 10% in construction and quarrying; 9% in hotels, restaurants and bars.
Jersey along with Guernsey has its own lottery called The Channel Islands Lottery that was launched in 1975.
On 18 February 2005, Jersey was granted Fairtrade Island status.
Until the 20th century, the States relied on indirect taxation to finance the administration of Jersey. The levying of impôts (duties) different from those of the United Kingdom was granted by Charles II and remained in the hands of the Assembly of Governor, Bailiff and Jurats until 1921 when that body’s tax raising powers were transferred to the Assembly of the States, leaving the Assembly of Governor, Bailiff and Jurats to serve simply as licensing bench for the sale of alcohol (this fiscal reform also stripped the Lieutenant-Governor of most of his effective remaining administrative functions). The Income Tax Law of 1928 introducing income tax was the first law drafted entirely in English. Income tax has been levied at a flat rate of 20% set by the occupying Germans during World War II.
Because value added tax (VAT) has not been levied in the island, luxury goods have often been cheaper than in the UK or in France, providing an incentive for tourism from neighbouring countries. The absence of VAT has also led to the growth of the fulfilment industry, whereby low-value luxury items, such as videos, lingerie and contact lenses are exported, avoiding VAT on arrival and thus undercutting local prices on the same products. In 2005, the States of Jersey announced limits on licences granted to non-resident companies trading in this way.
Low-value consignment relief provided the mechanism for VAT-free imports from the Channel Islands to the UK until 1 April 2012, at which time this policy of the UK government was binned.
Although Jersey does not have VAT, the States of Jersey introduced a goods and services tax (GST) on 6 May 2008, at a standard rate of 3%. The rate was amended to 5% on 1 June 2011. Although GST is at 5%, shopping in Jersey is still far more expensive than in the UK. Food is not exempt, unlike with VAT.
Jersey is not subject to European Union fiscal legislation and its Zero-Ten legislation will be compliant with the Code of Conduct in business taxation as from the removal of the deemed distribution and attribution anti-avoidance legislation as of 31 December 2011, which was apparently criticised by certain unnamed members of the Code of Conduct Group, a subsidiary body of ECOFIN. The Code of Conduct Group, at least in theory, keeps most of its documentation and discussion confidential. The European Commission has confirmed that the Code is not a legal instrument, and therefore is not legally binding, only becoming of limited “political” authority once a unanimous report has been adopted by the Group at the end of the Presidency concerned.
Jersey is ranked as a tax haven by many organisations; the Financial Secrecy Index ranks Jersey as the 9th safest tax haven in the world, ahead of Japan and behind Germany.
The pound is the currency of Jersey. Jersey is in currency union with the United Kingdom, and the Jersey pound is not a separate currency but is an issue of banknotes and coins by the States of Jersey denominated in pound sterling, in a similar way to the banknotes issued in Scotland and Northern Ireland. It can be exchanged at par with other sterling coinage and notes.
For this reason, ISO 4217 does not include a separate currency code for the Jersey pound, but where a distinct code is desired JEP is generally used.
Both Jersey and Bank of England notes are legal tender in Jersey and circulate together, alongside the Guernsey pound and Scottish banknotes. The Jersey notes are not legal tender in the United Kingdom but are legal currency, so creditors and traders may accept them if they so choose.
On 29 April 2010 a new set of Jersey banknotes was issued. The notes are trilingual, containing text in English, French and Jèrriais. On June 1, 2012, a £100 note was issued to commemorate the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II.
The obverse of the notes (£1-£50) includes a portrait of the Duchy of Normandy based on a photograph by Mark Lawrence, alongside a view of an important Jersey landmark, with text in English. On these notes the Duchy is wearing the Vladimir Tiara as opposed to a crown in recognition of her title in Jersey; Duke of Normandy.
The reverse of each note includes an image of one of Jersey’s numerous historic coastal defence towers, built in the late 18th century, as well as a further image of cultural or landscape importance, images of the twelve parish crests, and with denomination worded in French and Jèrriais.
The Jersey cow watermark is retained, and further security features include a see-through map of Jersey. On the £10, £20 and £50 a patch hologram showing a varying image of the coat of arms of Jersey and the Island of Jersey on a background pattern of La Corbière lighthouse. The new designs were publicly shown for the first time on February 22, 2010.
Censuses have been undertaken in Jersey since 1821. In the 2011 census, the total resident population was estimated to be 97,857, of whom 34% live in Saint Helier, the island’s only town. Only half the island’s population was born in Jersey; 31% of the population were born elsewhere in the British Isles, 7% in continental Portugal or Madeira, 8% in other European countries and 4% elsewhere.
The people of Jersey are often called Islanders or, in individual terms, Jerseyman or Jerseywoman. Some Jersey-born people identify as British and value the special relationship between the British Crown and the island.
Jersey belongs to the Common Travel Area and the definition of “United Kingdom” in the British Nationality Act 1981 is interpreted as including the UK and the Islands together.
For immigration and nationality purposes, the United Kingdom generally treats Jersey as though it were part of the UK. Jersey is constitutionally entitled to restrict immigration by non-Jersey residents, but control of immigration at the point of entry cannot be introduced for British, certain Commonwealth and EEA nationals without change to existing international law.
Immigration is therefore controlled by a mixture of restrictions on those without residential status purchasing or renting property in the island and restrictions on employment. Migration policy is to move to a registration system to integrate residential and employment status.
Jersey maintains its own immigration and border controls. United Kingdom immigration legislation may be extended to Jersey by order in council (subject to exceptions and adaptations) following consultation with Jersey and with Jersey’s consent.
Although Jersey citizens are full British citizens, an endorsement restricting the right of establishment in European Union states other than the UK is placed in the passports of British citizens connected solely with the Channel Islands and Isle of Man.
Those who have a parent or grandparent born in the United Kingdom, or who have lived in the United Kingdom for five years, are not subject to this restriction.
Historical large-scale immigration was facilitated by the introduction of steamships (from 1823). By 1840, up to 5,000 English people, mostly half-pay officers and their families, had settled in Jersey.
In the aftermath of 1848, Polish, Russian, Hungarian, Italian and French political refugees came to Jersey.
Following Louis Napoléon’s coup of 1851, more French proscrits arrived. By the end of the 19th century, well-to-do British families, attracted by the lack of income tax, were settling in Jersey in increasing numbers, establishing St Helier as a predominantly English-speaking town.
Seasonal work in agriculture had depended mostly on Bretons and mainland Normans from the 19th century. The growth of tourism attracted staff from the United Kingdom. Following Liberation in 1945, agricultural workers were mostly recruited from the United Kingdom – the demands of reconstruction in mainland Normandy and Brittany employed domestic labour.
Until the 1960s, the population had been relatively stable for decades at around 60,000 (excluding the Occupation years). Economic growth spurred immigration and a rise in population, which in 2013 was about 100,000. From the 1960s Portuguese workers arrived, mostly working initially in seasonal industries in agriculture and tourism.
BBC Radio Jersey provides a radio service, and BBC Channel Islands News with headquarters in Jersey provides a joint television news service with Guernsey.
ITV Channel Television is a regional ITV franchise shared with the Bailiwick of Guernsey but with its headquarters in Jersey.
Channel 103 is a commercial radio station.
Radio Youth FM is an internet radio station run by young people.
Bailiwick Express is one of Jersey’s digital online news sources.
Jersey has only one newspaper, the Jersey Evening Post, which is printed six days a week, and has been in publication since 1890. It is the main source for printed public notices.
Sixbynine Ltd, an independent publisher produce the longest running lifestyle magazine ‘Gallery’, a property magazine ‘Places’ and an annual food publication ‘Appetite’.